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(also port forwarding)

Tunneling definition

Tunneling is a technique for securely moving data across a network using protocols the latter does not support. In tunneling, the data is broken up into “packets,” protected with encryption, and encapsulated (wrapped in another data packet that conforms to the network requirements.) The encapsulated data is then sent over the network to its final destination, where decapsulation and decryption takes place.

Virtual private networks (VPNs) use tunneling to protect their users’ data and privacy. Connecting to a VPN server establishes a secure encrypted tunnel to your device, preventing others from intercepting or altering your internet traffic. In VPNs, decryption takes place at the VPN server, which then forwards your data to your intended destination.,

Real tunneling protocols

  • WireGuard
  • OpenVPN
  • L2TP (Layer 2 Tunneling Protocol)
  • IP in IP (IP in IPv4/IPv6)
  • SIT/IPv6 (IPv6 in IPv4/IPv6)
  • GRE (Generic Routing Encapsulation)
  • SSTP ( Secure Socket Tunneling Protocol )
  • IPSec (Internet Protocol Security)

Watch it explained: Split tunelling