A program object that blocks multiple users from accessing the same shared variable or data at the same time. With a critical section, a region of code in which multiple processes or threads access the same shared resource, this idea is put to use in concurrent programming. Only one thread can use a mutex at a time, thus, upon program startup, a mutex with a specific name is created. To prevent other threads from accessing a shared resource at the same time, a thread currently using that resource must lock the mutex. The mutex is unlocked when the thread releases the resource. Hardware and software levels can enforce mutex. Enforcing kernel mutex and preventing shared data structure corruption is best done by disabling interrupts for the fewest instructions. The resource acquisition flag is set based on availability if many CPUs share memory. Busy-wait enforces software mutex. This includes algorithms like Dekker’s, Peterson’s, Szymanski’s, Lamport’s, and the black-white bakery algorithm.
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