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Home Tofsee


Aliases: Gheg

Category: Malware

Type: Trojan, Stealer, Spambot

Platforms affected: Windows

Variants: Backdoor:W32/Tofsee.H, Backdoor:W32/Tofsee.A!Mem

Damage potential: Depleting resources by mining cryptocurrency, data theft, sending out spam emails, adding the device to a botnet for DDoS attacks.


Tofsee is a sophisticated multi-purpose trojan known for its modular architecture. This quality makes this malware versatile and able to carry out a wide range of attacks. Initially, cybercriminals used it to distribute spam emails, but in recent years, Tofsee has evolved to include features like DDoS attacks, cryptocurrency mining, and data theft. Criminals distribute it through exploit kits, phishing attacks, and secondary malware downloads. Once installed, Tofsee is capable of self-unpacking and running entirely on the device's RAM, rather than the hard drive, which complicates its detection and removal.

Possible symptoms

Once your device is infected with Tofsee, you are bound to notice many symptoms:

  • Unusual network traffic or increased data usage due to outgoing emails.
  • Poor system performance, like crashes, unexpected restarts, or shutdowns.
  • Slower device performance or reduced internet speed.
  • Unknown processes or applications showing up in the Task Manager.
  • Unauthorized changes to the device’s settings or system files.
  • The web browser opens automatically.

Sources of infection

Cybercriminals can infect your device with Tofsee in a few different ways:

  • By exploiting vulnerabilities in outdated software on your device.
  • By using other malware to download Tofsee to your device.
  • By sending out spam emails with malicious attachments or dangerous links.
  • Through social media posts that link to compromised or malicious websites.
  • By disguising the trojan as legitimate software that people download and execute themselves.


The best way to protect your device from Tofsee is to ensure that the trojan doesn’t enter it in the first place. So be careful when you get unsolicited emails, especially if they have files or links attached. You can use NordVPN’s Threat Protection Pro to make your browsing safer and help you avoid malware like Tofsee. It will block your access to malicious websites and scan the files you’re downloading and delete them if malware is found. It will also notify you if any of the software on your device has vulnerabilities so you can update it immediately. You can also take the following actions:

  • Regularly update your software and operating system to close security loopholes.
  • Educate yourself on recognizing phishing attempts and learn about safe browsing practices.
  • Only download software from official app stores and developers’ websites.
  • Make sure to back up your most sensitive data every few months.

Tofsee removal

You can try to remove Tofsee manually, but it’s a long and complicated process. It’s better to opt for a dedicated anti-malware tool:

  • Before anything else, disconnect infected devices from the internet to stop malware from communicating with its control center.
  • Use an updated and reputable paid antivirus software to scan your device and remove malicious components.
  • Consider doing a full system restoration — delete everything on your device, restore factory settings, and start fresh.
  • After removal, change passwords and review security settings to prevent reinfection.