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Spectrum Efficiency

(also Bandwith Efficiency)

Spectrum efficiency definition 

Spectrum efficiency is the optimal use of the radio frequency (RF) spectrum. Its aim is to maximize the amount of data transmitted with the least amount of spectrum resources. It is a critical concept in wireless communications, where the spectrum is a limited and valuable resource.

See also: Radio over Internet Protocol

How it works

Spectrum efficiency is measured in bits per second per hertz (bps/Hz) — it quantifies how effectively a given bandwidth (in hertz) can carry data (in bits per second). Higher spectrum efficiency means more data can be transmitted over the same bandwidth, improving the overall utilization of the spectrum.

Spectrum efficiency enhancement requires using advanced technologies and methods to optimize data transmission:

  1. 1.Modulation. Advanced modulation schemes like quadrature amplitude modulation increase the amount of data transmitted per hertz by varying the amplitude and phase of the carrier signal.
  2. 2.Multiple access. Techniques like time division multiple access, frequency division multiple access, and code division multiple access enable multiple users to share the same spectrum without interference.
  3. 3.Multiple input multiple output. Utilizes multiple antennas at both the transmitter and receiver to send and receive more than one data signal simultaneously, effectively increasing throughput without needing additional spectrum.
  4. 4.Cognitive radio. Allows dynamic spectrum access, where devices can detect unused spectrum and switch frequencies to avoid congestion and interference.