(also input/output controller, IOC)
An I/O controller refers to a hardware element or chip that oversees the input and output interactions between a computer’s central processing unit (CPU) and peripheral devices like storage drives, keyboards, and printers. Serving as a go-between, it enables the exchange of data and commands between the CPU and external devices, guaranteeing precise and effective data transmission.
I/O controllers vary in their supported data transfer protocols, speeds, and connection types. For example, USB controllers offer faster data transfer rates and hot-swappable connections compared to serial and parallel controllers. However, compatibility with specific devices may require the use of a particular type of I/O controller.
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